1. Choose another prehistoric site in the four corners region and describe possible connections to Chaco Canyon.
The Chimney Rock was a Chacoan northern "outlier." It is linked to the Chaco Canyon by distinctive artifacts. There is evidence that shows that Chimney Rock was a place for making astronomical observations. There are numerous sun watching stations, as well as a "lunar standstill" that can be seen from the pueblo every 18.6 years as the full moon rises between two chimneys.

2. Describe Pueblo Bonito's alignments to the cardinal directions. What is the importance of the cardinal directions to Dr. Shelley Valdez?
Pueblo Bonito is the largest of Chacoan structures. Pueblo Bonito's alignment to the cardinal directions is that it has a line drawn through the center of the half moon shape, which forms a precise north-south axis and also the eastern-half of its southern wall is aligned east-west. The Sun rises and sets in alignment with this wall in spring and fall equinoxes. Dr. Shelley Valdez said that the cardinal direction were important because "(They) connect people, the seasons, the Sun and Moon's patterns, time, nature, the environment, the cosmos, and ceremonial systems. Observance of the cardinal directions and the Sun essentially ensured life by knowing when it was time to plant, harvest, and hunt for example. Pueblo Bonito is a physical manifestation of these ideas."

3. What can you infer by comparing the photos of Casa Rinconada before its excavation in 1930's to the way it looks today?
By comparing the photos of Casa Rinconada before its excavation in 1930's to the way it looks today, we can infer that in the process of the reconstruction of the Casa Rinconada, the window in the upper portion of the wall might have been placed slightly off. Therefore, the solstice alignment might not have been intentional. There is also evidence that would suggest that some outer rooms could have possibly blocked this window.

4. Explore the Quicktime VR movies of Pueblo Bonito. Record at least three observations that you make as you look around this structure.
There was a large amount of energy that was put into the production of the Chaco Canyon structures. These structures must have been preplaned. The structures all appear to be connected as well. The buildings are rather large. It really seams like the Chacoans put great thought into these building structures. The Great Plaza has much space to it. As for the interior of the room, it further shows that there was great thought put into these structures through the great construction of the rooms interior. The height of the structure also shows that the rooms and walls must have been built very strong. Everything is very open.

5. What was "Threatening Rock" and how has it impacted Pueblo Bonito?
Threatening Rock was a rather large rock which hovered over Pueblo Bonito. From the view of Threatening Rock, you can see the kivas in the pueblo. Ancient Chacoans built masonry terraces beneath the base of the rock, probably to stop the rock from eroding. They also added some large support beams into any cracks found at the bottom of the rock, so that it would stay strong and not fall apart or collapse. This shows that it was a great structure valued by the Chacoans. Further proof of this is found in the ritual prayer sticks that were discovered in the crevices of the rock, which serves as good evidence that they took spiritual measures of protection.

6. What does the Supernova Pictograph look like to you? Why do some believe that this pictograph is a representation of the supernova of July 4, 1054 A.D.
It is believed that this pictograph could possibly have recorded a celestial event.There are some archaeoastronomers that believe that this ten-pointed star displayed in the pictograph, could represent the supernova recorded by Chinese and Japanese astronomers in 1054 A.D, because this supernova would have not only illuminated the night sky for about a month, but it would have also remained visible during the day as well. These archaeoastronomers believe that the crescent represents the moon in the crescent phase, and that the handprint was the sign of the person who recorded the event. I see where these people could be coming from, but personally, all I see is a picture of a handprint, a moon, and a sun, which doesn't have to mean anything beyond that the Chocoans lived by the sun and the moon.
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